Russian athletes have been banned from competing at the Rio 2016 Paralympics following the country’s doping scandal.
The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) had opened suspension proceedings following the McLaren report, and has now confirmed the ban.
That report, published last month, detailed a state-sponsored doping programme operated by Russia.
The Russian Paralympic Committee is to appeal against the decision to the Court of Arbitration for Sport.
In contrast to the IPC, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) chose not to hand Russia a blanket ban from the Olympic Games.
The Rio 2016 Paralympics begin in 31 days’ time, on 7 September, and 267 Russian athletes across 18 sports will now miss the Games.
“The anti-doping system in Russia is broken, corrupted and entirely compromised,” said IPC president Sir Philip Craven at a news conference on Sunday.
“The Russian Paralympic Committee are unable to ensure compliance with and enforcement of the IPC anti-doping code and the world anti-doping code within their own national jurisdiction and they can not fulfil its fundamental obligation as an IPC member.
“As a result, the Russian Paralympic Committee is suspended with immediate effect.”
Russian Paralympic Committee member Evgeniy Bukharov told BBC World Service: “I’m disappointed and really shocked. The IOC decided to stay for the rights of the clean athletes and only to fight against the athletes who are involved in doping.
“I spoke with my team-mates from the organising committee and saw the reaction of the Russian Paralympic team, the athletes and coaches. They are very frustrated with this decision. If someone over four years tries to do their best to participate in the Games, suddenly to hear that they should not participate frustrated them.”