Three out of four judges on Brazil’s supreme court ruled that Bruno Fernandes de Souza should go back behind bars.
The 32-year-old former player for Rio’s famous Flamengo side was let out on a technicality in February while he appealed against his conviction.
He was signed by a second tier club, Boa Esporte.
Souza was serving 22 years for arranging the 2010 killing of Eliza Samudio, who was tortured and strangled before her body was fed to Rottweilers.
“Bruno” – as he is known to many in Brazil – was convicted of “meticulously” arranging the murder to avoid paying child support for the couple’s baby, who was conceived while he was still married.
The player claimed at his 2013 trial that he “accepted” the plot but had not instigated it.
However, his cousin, who helped carry out the murder, told police the footballer was present when the mother of his child was killed and mutilated.
Souza, 32, had been tipped for Brazil’s 2014 World Cup squad and was said to be on the verge of a transfer to a big European club.
His return to professional football sparked outrage among many in Brazil and his new club lost five sponsors.
Some fans still supported him though, chanting his name at matches and training sessions.
But after just five games Souza is heading back to jail after Brazil’s attorney general, Rodrigo Janot, made the request to the supreme court.
Mr Janot agreed with Ms Samudio’s family that his early release put them in danger.
After the decision, Souza turned himself in at a police station in the city of Varginha, where Boa Esporte are based.
He must now stay in jail until his appeal is decided.
Campaign groups say the case highlights alarming levels of misogyny and violence towards against women in Brazil.